Subfamilia Batagurinae

Gray, 1869a
Batagurine turtles

The subfamily Batagurinae includes the 12 genera Batagur, Callagur, Chinemys, Geoclemys, Hardella, Hieremys, Kachuga, Malayemys, Morenia, Ocadia, Orlitia, and Siebenrockiella, with 22 species. Their triturating surfaces are moderate to broad (at least posteriorly) with or without ridges, cusps, or serrations. The lower triturating surface may be either equal in length to or longer than the dentary symphysis along the midline. The vomer is large in most species (small in Orlitia and Siebenrockiella) and may form either part of the floor of the cranial cavity or the triturating surface of the upper jaw. It conceals the praepalatine foramen in all but Orlitia and Siebenrockiella. The anterior opening of the Vidian canal may be in the palatine, lower process of the parietal, the parieto-palatine suture, or between the epipterygoid on the outside and the palatine medially. The anterior part of the lower parietal process touches the palatine either lateral to or medial to the Vidian canal. The squamosal is firmly attached to its neighboring bones, and the quadratojugal and jugal are in contact. Digit 5 of both front and hind feet contains three phalanges. No plastral hinge is present.