Genus Sacalia

Gray, 1870b
Eyed turtles

This genus includes three Asian monotypic species with peculiar eye-like marks on the back of the head. The carapace is elongated and elliptical with one or three low keels and a rather smooth posterior rim. Neural bones are six-sided and shortest anteriorly. The plastron is well-developed, hingeless, and notched posteriorly. The bridge is moderately long, but the buttresses are weak, barely extending beyond the peripheral bones. Usually only one axillary and inguinal scutes are present, although the inguinal may be absent. The head is of moderate size with smooth skin covering the dorsal surface. The squamosal bones touching the postorbitals but not the jugals. The ethmoid fissure is broad and triangular; the postlagenar hiatus large and round, and the orbito-nasal foramen is bordered by the basisphenoid in front of the primitive caroticum foramen. The anterior edge of the inferior parietal process flares outward to touch the palatine and jugal. Triturating surfaces of the jaws are narrow and ridgeless. The snout does not protrude, and the upper jaw is neither notched nor hooked. Anterior surface of the forelimbs is covered with large scales. The toes are webbed.
The diploid chromosome number is 52: 9 pairs of metacentric or submetacentric macrochromosomes, 5 pairs of telocentric or subtelocentric macrochromosomes, and 12 pairs of microchromosomes (Bickham, 1975).

Species identification
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