Genus Geoemyda

Gray, 1834b
Leaf turtles

This is the nominate genus of the subfamily Geoemydinae (Geoemyda complex of McDowell, 1964; and Ernst and Barbour, 1989), and it has been used in the past as a "catchall" for various batagurid or geomydine species, but at present includes only three semi-terrestrial species.
The carapace of turtles belonging to this genus is "prickly" with jagged, serrated projections on both the anterior and posterior rims. It is flattened anteriorly, and slightly broader posterior to the center. Usually three keels are present, with the medial better developed than the two lateral ones. The underlying neurals are hexagonal with the shortest side posterior. The large plastron is well-developed and hingeless with a posterior notch. The bony bridge is has weak buttresses and barely extends beyond the peripheral bones, both axillary and inguinal scutes are usually present. The head is not enlarged and the snout does not project. The upper jaw is medially hooked, and the triturating surface is narrow and lacks ridges. Special skull features noted by McDowell (1964) include: the inferior process of the parietal bones being strongly convergent ventrally and encroaching on the groove housing the trabecular cartilage, so that the cranial cavity is marginally narrowed ventrally, and not contacting the palatines; the anterior edge of the inferior process being very thin and separated from the ventral portion of the jugal bone by both the pterygoid and maxilla; the usual absence of the orbito-nasal foramina (a small pair may be present); and the presence of a keyhole-shaped ethmoid fissure. Anterior surfaces of the forelegs are covered with large, overlapping scales, and large scales also occur on the heels of the hind feet. The toes are only partially webbed.
The karyotype is 2n = 52 (Nakamura, 1949).

Species identification
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